See King, Dennis M., Mark Riggio and Patrick T. Hagan. 2009. Preliminary Analysis of Cost of Ballast Water
Treatment Systems for detailed installation cost summaries of ballast treatment systems for these eight categories of
vessels. Available at
King, Dennis M. and Mario Tamburri. 2010. Verifying Compliance with Ballast Water Discharge Regulations.
Ocean Development & International Law, 1521-0642, Volume 41, Issue 2, pages 152-165.
For a discussion of cooperative self-regulation, or co-management, in safety and environmental regulation in the
shipping industry, see Bennett, Paul. 2000. Mutual risk: P&I clubs and maritime safety and environmental
performance. Marine Policy 25 (2001) 13-21.
See Bennett, Paul. 2000. Mutual risk: P&I clubs and maritime safety and environmental performance. Marine
Policy 25 (2001) 13-21.
See “Compliance with Victoria’s Ballast Water Management System” in Report on Ballast Water and Hull
Fouling in Victoria. Submitted to Parliament by the Environment and Natural Resources Committee. Web site last
updated March 1, 2002:
For a review of U.S. national and state ballast water regulations, see Read D. Porter and Jordan Diamond,
Tools for Responsible Shipping in the Great Lakes: Using Financial Responsibility Policies to Prevent Ballast-
Borne Biological Pollution
. Environmental Law Institute White Paper. July 2009.
For a detailed discussion of the actors in the regulation of vessel-source marine pollution, see Tan, Alan Khee Jin.
Vessel-Source Marine Pollution: The Law and Politics of International Regulation
. Cambridge: Cambridge
See further discussion of this inspection issue in
The World Merchant Fleet in 2007: Statistics from Equasis
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. 2004.
Maritime Transport Committee Report on the
Removal of Insurance from Substandard Shipping.
See for example Frost and Sullivan report, which suggests a market size of 57,000 vessels or more