MERC The Biology of Garveia franciscana and Potential Options to Limit Impacts of Cooling System Fouling - page 10

C.MIOXCorperation,MixedOxidant Solutions
MIOX claims to have a new onsite generation technology that produces a mixture of
disinfectants by electrolysis. The MIOX fouling prevention systems creates a dilute solution of
0.40% sodium hypochloritewith traces of hydrogen peroxide and other reactive oxygen species.
This approach is at the center of the new treatment regimen designed byMIOX’s partner New
Technology Systems to combat biofouling at power plants but it is unclear how it is different
than standard electochlorination and it is possible that other similar onsite electrolysis systems
produce the same suite of oxidants. Sodium bromide (liquid injection, commercially available for fouling prevention)
Sodium bromide is another oxidizing biocide and is marketed under the name Acti-Brom 7342
(42.8 % sodium bromide and 57.2 % inert ingredients) for use in fouling control by NALCO.
Sodium bromide is meant for use in combination with another primary oxidant, such as sodium
hypochlorite, to reduce the amount of biocide required (i.e., a “chlorine enhancer”), and provides
a source of hypobromous acid when applied to cooling water systems. Sodium bromide is also
highly soluble and has a high density, which permits large amounts of liquid bromine
monochloride to be supplied in small container.While there is a cost associatedwith the addition
of more than one biocide, the use of sodium bromide might reduce overall costs when meeting
discharge requirements is taken into account. Additional information on this approach is
provided below inSection 8. Ozone (inline generation, commercially available for fouling prevention)
Ozone is also a commonwater treatment approach. Ozone gas is produced by an ozone generator
and is bubbled through the water. While it has been used safely and effectively in several
applications for many years, including cooling system fouling control, ozonation of saltwater
results in the production of bromate by-products, which may be harmful to the environment.
Other potential limitations include challenges in achieving uniform distribution of ozone
throughout a system and the relatively high cost of treatment for large-scale applications. These
have largely restricted the use of ozone for treatment of potablewater and sewage. However, at
one location, ozone is being re-evaluated as a method for controlling
G. franciscana
because a pulsed chlorination attempt was unsuccessful (Entergy Sabine Power Station, personal
A. Wedeco (Xylem), EffizonHP technology
WedecoEffizon ozone installations have been integrated into and used formany years in cooling
systems of many areas of power production. TheWedeco system is designed to be turnkey and
operated in a fully automaticmode.
B. Other providers include GEWater & Power, Senozone Services Ozonation, AirTree Ozone
Technology, andPrimozoneBioFoulControl. Chlorine dioxide (liquid injection, commercial)
Chlorine dioxide is available for fouling control applications and is similar inmanyways to the
injection of liquid sodium hypochlorite. However, to produce chlorine dioxide, large volumes of
concentrated sulfuric acid and hydrogen peroxide must be stored on-site and mixed in
appropriate ratios prior to injection.
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